In this section we provide a summary of the resources used in the Implications for Biodiversity Guide.
To find out more about definitions of key measures, technical information and the references, click on the topics below. For more information about data available on CSIRO’s Data Access Portal, click the menu on the right hand side.
Definitions of key measures
For quick reference, the key measures introduced in this Module are briefly defined below. Expanded definitions of these and other terms are provided in the Glossary in the Implications for Biodiversity Guide.
Projected ecological similarity:
In the context of climate change, projected ecological similarity measures how similar a single location is over two time periods in its composition. It is typically applied to a baseline (current) and future climate scenario. Ecological similarity can vary from 0 (no species in common) to 1 (all species the same).
Potential degree of ecological change:
The potential degree of ecological change is how much change in composition may occur. It is measured using the projected ecological similarity between different points in time, but at the same location. The lower the similarity between a baseline and future time, the greater the potential degree of ecological change.
Novel ecological environments:
Novel ecological environments are places where the future environment that arises is likely to have a composition that is different from any environment currently known on the continent.
Disappearing ecological environments:
Disappearing ecological environments are places where the composition in its current form is unlikely to exist anywhere on the continent in the future.
Change in effective area of similar ecological environments:
Change in effective area of similar ecological environments is a measure of the gain or loss in the total area of land with an environment similar to that of a particular location. It is thus an index of reduced or increased capacity to support the original biodiversity of a location. For example, this may occur due to climate change and/or land clearing patterns. If there is a reduction in the effective area of similar ecological environments, we expect a corresponding loss of original biodiversity, and vice versa.
What is a technical note?
For those interested in learning more about the methods, further explanation and background information is provided in a series of Technical Notes. These are included as an appendix to the Implications for Biodiversity Guide.
- Technical Note 1 – Biodiversity projection datasets and maps
- Technical Note 2 – Community-level modelling using Generalised Dissimilarity Modelling
- Technical Note 3 – Climate data used to model and project ecological similarity in this Guide
- Technical Note 4 – Spatially estimating biodiversity model limitations
References and further reading
The following list of references draws upon material referred within or relevant to this Module.
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Blois JL, Williams JW, Fitzpatrick MC, Ferrier S, Veloz SD, He F, Liu Z, Manion G, Otto-Bliesner B (2013a) Modeling the climatic drivers of spatial patterns in vegetation composition since the Last Glacial Maximum. Ecography 36(4), 460-473.
Blois JL, Williams JW, Fitzpatrick MC, Jackson ST, Ferrier S (2013b) Space can substitute for time in predicting climate-change effects on biodiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10(23), 9374–9379.
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Drielsma M, Manion G, Love J, Williams KJ, Harwood T (2014b) ‘3C Modelling for Biodiversity Management Under Future Climate.’ (NSW Office of Environment and Heritage: Armidale). Available online at https://terranova.org.au
Dunlop M, Hilbert DW, Ferrier S, House A, Liedloff A, Prober SM, Smyth A, Martin TG, Harwood T, Williams KJ, Fletcher C, Murphy H (2012a) ‘Implications for policy makers: climate change, biodiversity conservation and the National Reserve System.’ (CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship: Canberra) 11, available online: http://www.csiro.au/Organisation-Structure/Flagships/Climate-Adaptation-Flagship/adapt-national-reserve-system.aspx
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Harwood T, Williams KJ, Ferrier S (2012) ‘Generation of spatially downscaled climate change predictions for Australia.’ (Generation of spatially downscaled climate change predictions for Australia. CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship Working Paper No. 13F: Canberra) 12, available online: http://www.csiro.au/Organisation-structure/Flagships/Climate-Adaptation-Flagship/CAF-working-papers/CAF-working-paper-13.aspx
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